Types of courts in Romania

There are several types of courts in Romania that we should know, in principle. Many crimes are tried directly in the Court of Appeal, for example, while others remain within the jurisdiction of the lower courts. The courts are part of the judiciary system, with Public Ministry and the Superior Council of Magistracy. However, we will highlight the important ideas that we should know when it comes to the courts in our country.

What is a court of law?

A court is a space where judges, clerks and other people with an essential role in the optimal development of existing processes work together. Here there can be several types of processes – civil, criminal, administrative litigation, fiscal, etc. All the courts are called the judicial system, which is organized in the form of a pyramid.

Pyramid shaped?

Yes. Concretely, the hierarchy consists of judges, tribunals, courts of appeal and the High Court of Cassation and Justice. Depending on the legal provisions, certain lawsuits can be tried in the first instance at the court, but also at the tribunal.

What happens at the local court?

We will find the judges in each county (for example, in Teleorman County there is Alexandria Court, Zimnicea Court, Videle Court, etc., these being cities), including in the Municipality of Bucharest, depending on the sectors. For example, if we have a specific request regarding the division of an inheritance, we will first go to the local court, taking into account the issue we are submitting for judgment.

But in tribunal?

The processes that are not judged, in the first instance, to the local courts will reach the tribunal. These will be found in the county seat, but also at the level of the Municipality of Bucharest (if we follow the same example, there is only one court in Teleorman, located in Alexandria – the Teleorman Court). However, if we are not satisfied with the court decision given at the tribunal, the court also plays the role of the court of appeal, that is, the decision will be appealed to the court and re-judged if the law allows it.

What is a Court of Appeal?

Courts of appeal can also play the role of first instance, especially if we are talking, in principle, about administrative litigation. However, just as in the case of the tribunal, it can act as a court of appeal when a court decision issued by the tribunal can be further appealed. Courts of appeal are not as numerous as the courts and, in some cases, cover several regions (for example, in the Dobrogea region there is only the Constanța Court of Appeal).

The last instance, Supreme Court

There is only one court of this type, in Bucharest. Trials in the first instance are not tried here, but, for example, appeals filed against a decision of an appellate court arrive.

Miruna-Casiana Dumitrașcu

Content Creator @ R&R Partners Bucharest

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